Biomedical Lab Sci

Cytopathology I2

Citopatologia I

Course code:68311

Eugénia Maria Marques Lucas

Learning outcomes of the curricular unit:

Upon conclusion of the course, the student must have:

Instrumental Skills:

  • Identify and understand the various steps in the realization of Gynaecologic cytology
  • Identify the normal cellular constituents and characteristic patterns of various pathologies associated with the female reproductive system

Systemic skills:

  • Perform "spot" and/or "screening" with interpretation and preparation of report
  • Interpretation of results and report writing when conducting screening
  1. Presentation of the programme and evaluation of theoretical and practical classes. Definition of Cytology. Chronological presentation of the facts relevant to the history of Cytology. Characterization of Cytology.
  2. Anatomy of the female reproductive system. Definition and characterization of the cell. Characterization of various epitheliums. Characterization of squamous and glandular epithelial cells.
  3. Obtaining the cytological sample. Evaluation of smears. Blood cells.
  4. Colposcopic examination. Cytological material reception. The various processing according to the cytological material. Contaminants of the smears: cells, particles and fibres and other constituents.
  5. Cytological material fixation. Cytochemistry . Normal cellular/hormonal patterns. Hyperplasia and Metaplasia.
  6. Changes of deficiency in folic acid. Degenerative and regenerative changes. Iatrogenic changes: hormone therapy changes; carriers with IUD; surgical intervention; electrocoagulation with laser and cryotherapy; Effect of radiation.
  7. Inflammation. Microorganisms-bacteria: Bacillus of Doderlein, Gardnerella Vaginalis, Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Coccus Gram-positive and Gram-negative, Actinomyces, Leptothrix vaginalis and Chlamydia.
  8. Fungi-Candida Albicans (Morilia) and Torulopsis glabrata. -Trichomonas parasites (Protozoa), Entamoeba Histolítica (Protozoa), Schistosomiase, Enterobius Vermicularis (Pinworm). Other parasites Trichuriasis (whipworm)-Trichuris and Taenia Solium, Taenia Saginata and Taenia Echinococus.
  9. Virus – herpes, Cytomegalovirus and HPV.
  10. Abnormalities of squamous cells. (ASCUS): low grade intraepithelial lesion;(ASCUS): high-grade intraepithelial lesion-CIN II And CIN III. Squamous carcinoma. squamous carcinoma of small and large cell type.
  11. Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). Adenocarcinoma in situ of endocervix. Adenocarcinoma of the endocervix.
  12. AGUS-endometrial cells. Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium versus adenocarcinoma of the endocervix. Adenosquamous Carcinoma.
  13. Therapy of cervical carcinoma
  14. Reviews
  15. 2nd Frequency
Suggested Bibliography:
  • Cibas SE & Ducatman BS (2014) Cytology: diagnostic principles and clinical correlates. 4th edition
  • Hoda SR & Hoda AS (2007) Fundamentals of Pap Test Cytology. Humana Press
  • Koss LG (2005) Koss´ Diagnostic Cytology and Its Histologic Bases. 5th edition: Linppicot Willikams & Wilkins, Vol.
  • Mckee GT (1997) Diagnostic Cytology and its histopathologic bases. 4th Edition. J.B. Lippincott, Vol. I e II
  • Solomon D, Nayar R (2015) The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology – definitions, Criteria, and explanatory notes. 2th Edition, Springer