Biomedical Lab Sci

Cytopathology I2

Citopatologia I

Course code:68304

Eugénia Maria Marques Lucas

Learning outcomes of the curricular unit:

Upon conclusion of the course, the student will be able to:

  • Identify and master the different stages of fine needle aspiration
  • When screening, identify normal cell patterns, other constituents and patterns in various pathologies associated with the following organs: breast.

Systemic competencies:

  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)
  • Interpretation of results and report writing when conducting screening
  1. Defining the objectives of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA); chronological presentation of major and relevant occurrences in the (FNA) history; determining situations where FNA is applied and not applied; benefits; materials and installation requirements for executing FNA; how to execute FNA; how to execute the smear; possible artefacts and recommendations in avoiding them; histochemistry applied to FNA; cellblock in FNA; proper terms used in diagnostics by FNA; parameter evaluation from a smear obtained in FNA; possible causes for false negatives and false positives.
  2. Fine needle aspiration of the female breast; anatomic description of the breast; analysing the aspiration sample obtained via the FNA; cytological description of the various benign processes in the breast FNA; cysts; fibrocystic disease; pregnant and lactating breast; acute mastitis; chronic mastitis; granulomatous mastitis; steatonecrosis; rectroareolar abcess; ductal hyperplasia; gynocomastia
  3. Cytological descriptions associated with breast benign tumours: fibroadenoma; benign phyllodes tumour; tubular adenoma; ductal papilloma
  4. Cytological descriptions associated with breast malignant tumours: carcinoma (carc.) ‘in situ’ ductal and lobular; ductal and lobular invasive carc.; bone marrow carc.; mucinous carc.; tubular carc.; papillary carc.; metaplastic carc.; cystic adenoidal carc.; apocrine carc. (oncocytic); squamos carcinoma
  5. Thyroid fine needle aspiration; anatomical localization of the thyroid gland; clinical data favouring benign and malignant thyroid lesions; description of the aspiration sample obtained via FNA; description of the thyroid cellular structures obtained via FNA when stained With MMG and PAP; description of the various cell types present in the smear obtained via FNA of the thyroid. Diagnostic terms. Associations of various cell arrangements and differing diagnostics between pathologies
  6. Thyroid smear evaluation – benign lesions: colloidal goiter, multinodular and nodular, amyloidal goiter, hyperthyroidism (Grave’s illness or Basedaw), Riedel’s disease, black thyroid, acute thyroiditis, sub-acute granulomatosis (Quervain) and chronical lynphocytic (Hashimoto); follicular adenoma.
  7. Thyroid smear evaluation – malignant lesions; papillary carcinoma; Follicular tumour; medullar carcinoma; hurthle cellular tumour ; Insular carcinoma; anaplastic carcinoma; lymphoma
  8. Salivary gland fine needle aspiration: anatomical location of the various salivary glands; importance of clinical and cytological data in evaluating the FNA smear; smear appearance and possible complications arising from FNA; staining types and methods: Papanicolaou (PAP) and May Grundwald Giemsa (MGG); describing the various cells in a normal smear.
  9. Evaluating the smear originating in the salivary glands – benign lesions: acute and chronic sialodenosis granulomatous and lympho epithelial sialodenosis ; sialodenosis ; non neoplastic cyst with mucous content (mucocelo) and squamous epithelial layer.
  10. Evaluating the smear originating in the salivary glands – benign tumors: pleiomorfico adenoma; Warthin tumor; oncocitoma…; basal cell adenoma; mioepithelioma.
  11. Evaluating the smear originating in the salivary glands – malignant tumours: cystic adenoidal carcinoma (cylindroma); mucos squamous carcinoma; adenocarcinoma of basal cell; lymphoma.
Optical microscope observation of cytological findings and correlation with the lectures.
Suggested Bibliography:
  • Documentation provided by the Professor in class
  • Bancroft JD, Stevens A (1996) Theory and Pratice of Histological Techniques”, 4th ed.
  • Decreto-Lei n° 584/99 de 21 de Dezembro de 1999
  • Moreno A (1997) O mundo fascinante da Medicina, Printipo
  • Sousa Tavares (1996) Curso de História, das origens aos fins do sêc. XVI. Fundaçao Calouste Gulbenkian
  • Veloso AJB (2000) A Medicina, A Arte e o Oficio , Gradiva